Principles of WDM

Module 1   Principles of Wildlife Damage Management


In this Module:


Learning Objectives


Terms to Know


WCO Education Core Curriculum


Principle 1 –
Wild animals are not Pests. 4


Principle 2 –
Problem animals are unwanted. 4


Principle 3 –
Prevent Wildlife Damage. 4


Principle 4 –
Objectives of WDM… 4


Principle 5 –
Understand Wildlife Biology. 6


Principle 6 – Knowledge
of Wildlife Biology and Habitat is Required  6


Principle 7 –
Use Multiple Strategies to Resolve Human-Conflicts  8


Principle 8 –
Conflict is Inevitable. 10


Principle 9 –
Respect Public Attitudes. 10


Principle 10 –
Education and Regulation Promote Competency and Professional Behavior 10


Study
Questions. 11


Learning Objectives


  1. Understand when and why an animal becomes or can
    be classified as a pest.
  2. Learn why wildlife damage management (IWDM) is
    about managing damage from wildlife, and not the management of wildlife.
  3. Understand the definition of a wildlife control
    operator.
  4. Explain the differences between biological and
    cultural carrying capacity, and how each relates to WDM.
  5. Explain the 5 key objectives addressed when
    applying IWDM methods.
  6. Learn why biological knowledge of wildlife
    species and habitat is important.
  7. List the major strategies for resolving
    human-wildlife conflicts.
  8. Learn why considering public attitudes and
    values towards wildlife is important.
  9. Learn why training makes a wildlife control
    professional more competent in the field.
  10. Know that wildlife control is highly regulated
    and that wildlife control professionals contribute to the conservation and
    management of wildlife species by working closely with state wildlife agencies.


Terms
to Know


Attitude – a personal way of thinking or feeling about someone or something, typically one that is reflected in a person’s behavior.


Competence
– the ability to do something successfully or efficiently.


Conservation
and Management
A conservation management system (CMS) is a procedure for
maintaining a species or habitat in a particular state. It is a means whereby wildlife
biologists, state, and private agencies protect wildlife for the recreational
use and enjoyment of all citizens.


Damage
– physical harm caused to something in such a way as to impair its value,
usefulness, or normal function.


IPM
– Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an ecosystem-based strategy that focuses
on long-term prevention of pests or their damage through a combination of
techniques such as biological control, habitat manipulation, modification of
cultural practices, with the goal to reduce damage to a tolerable level. WCOs
perform integrated wildlife damage management (IWDM).


Pest
– A plant, insect, or animal that sickens or annoys humans, hampers human
activities, damages crops or food products, harms livestock, or causes damage
to buildings.


Regulation
– a rule or directive made and maintained by an authority.


Training
– the action of teaching a person a particular concept, skill, or type of
behavior.


Wildlife
– Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come
to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being
introduced or controlled by humans.


Wildlife
are wild animals collectively; the native fauna (and sometimes flora) of a
region.


Wildlife
Control
– the methods and processes of excluding, repelling, capturing, and
removing nuisance animals


Wildlife
Control Operator
(WCO) – wildlife control operator (WCO) is an individual
trained to solve problems from wildlife conflicts and nuisance wildlife
situations, usually for profit.


Wildlife
Damage Management
– Wildlife damage management (WDM) is the application of
methods to resolve conflicts from vertebrate species that cause damage, create
safety issues, or are considered a nuisance.


Wildlife
is a valuable resource. Based on the 2016 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and
Wildlife-Associated Recreation
, over 103 million US residents fished,
hunted, or watched wildlife in 2011. They spent almost $157 billion pursuing
these recreational activities. Unfortunately, wildlife can damage property, be
a nuisance, and pose threats to human health and safety. Economic losses
associated with wildlife damage approach several billion annually,
demonstrating a clear need for effectively addressing negative impacts. The
purpose of this manual is to provide the basic information needed to help
people resolve conflicts with wildlife.


WCO
Education Core Curriculum


This
course content is designed for instruction and assessment of technicians
according to performance-based learning objectives related to competent, safe,
legal, respectful, and responsible trapping/capture, animal containment,
transport, dispatch as well as damage prevention techniques for long-term
animal damage control.


The
course content is designed to train people about wildlife control options and:


This training program is designed to
help professionals manage wildlife problems by developing solutions based on
the science and principles of integrated
pest management

(IPM) or Integrated Wildlife Damage
Management
(IWDM). The emphasis is on controlling damage and protecting
wildlife. Changes to the habitat or modifications to a building may be followed
by capture or other control measures including lethal techniques.


A wildlife control operator (WCO) is an individual trained to
solve problems from wildlife conflicts and nuisance wildlife situations,
usually for profit.
In some states, a WCO may be called an Animal Damage
Control Agent (ADC), Animal Control Agent (ACA) or Wildlife Damage Control
Agent (WDCA). Technically, a WCO is a specialist in vertebrate pest management
with the ability to capture, transport and dispatch an animal, and repair and
prevent the damage from occurring again. In this program we use the term WCO
to include all technicians trained in WDM methods
.


The
goal of WCO education is to train safe, competent, responsible, respectful, and
law-abiding WCOs. WCO education is important because it:


These
materials cover the basic skills needed to effectively deal with a variety of
wildlife issues. They focus on wildlife identification, knowledge of wildlife
habitat, and the skills to modify the habitat or capture, contain and dispatch
an animal. Most people can master the techniques required to resolve wildlife
conflicts using the methods of wildlife damage management.


Managing,
controlling, and capturing wildlife is a highly regulated activity. Whether the
conflict with wildlife is simple or complex, your response should follow be
professional and ethical. Federal, state, and local laws and regulations must
be obeyed. Safety practices should be followed. You will need detailed knowledge
of the species causing the conflict and you must be an advocate for the
wildlife. Be sure to review the species information after the training modules.


This
training is important because animal capture, trapping, handling, containment,
and control techniques must be learned, practiced, and mastered. Field work is
recommended to complete your training. If an animal must be killed or euthanized,
then the operator must be skilled in humane dispatch. Proper disposal and
carcass handling procedures are required. If a building or other structure
needs repair to prevent future conflicts, carpentry and building skills are
needed.


Wildlife
damage management
is founded in the traditions of hunting and trapping. A
historical perspective dates back to the days when fur harvesting and the fur
markets were dominant and bounty hunters killed wildlife to protect new
settlements. Many state and federal regulations regarding the control of
certain species are based on hunting and trapping regulations. Protected
status, open seasons, legal capture methods, and disposition are all influenced
by state hunting and trapping laws, and the conservation guidelines of wildlife
biologists.  


To
truly understand the basis of most state and federal laws around wildlife you
should:


Recognize
the central principles of the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation.


WCO’s
play a role in wildlife conservation


A WCO’s
Role in Wildlife Conservation can include:


Do
not hesitate to contact state and federal wildlife professionals if the damage
situation is complex or if safety issues exist. If you have concerns about your
ability to handle a wildlife problem with appropriate care and diligence, do
not hesitate to work with other qualified WCOs.


Many
states may require a trapping license to capture wildlife. Professional
certification and licensing for animal removal, transport, and disposition may
also be required. The use of regulated toxicants almost always requires a
separate pesticide applicator license.


In
today’s urban environment, abundant wildlife create many human-wildlife
conflicts, and wildlife damage management professionals are in demand. State
hunting and trapping laws need to be supplemented with nuisance wildlife
control laws. The training and skills required to hunt and trap for recreation are
similar to some of the control methods for WDM, such as knowledge of wildlife
and its habitat. However, a different set of skills is also needed to manage
wildlife in urban and suburban settings such as building maintenance, managing
clients, and public relations.


A wildlife control operator (WCO)
is a professional trained to solve problems from wildlife damage and nuisance
wildlife situations, usually for profit, and licensed or permitted by the
government.


The
management of wildlife causing damage has ethical, economic, social, and
biological dimensions. Concerns about animal welfare, property damage, safety,
species diversity, and habitat destruction pose philosophical questions that
must be answered professionally, fairly, and legally. Public awareness, appropriate
legal oversight, and research by wildlife professionals are nimal must be killed or euthanized,
then the operator must be skilled in humane dispatch. Proper disposal and
carcass handling procedures are required. If a building or other structure
needs repair to prevent future conflicts, carpentry and building skills are
needed.


Wildlife
damage management
is founded in the traditions of hunting and trapping. A
historical perspective dates back to the days when fur harvesting and the fur
markets were dominant and bounty hunters killed wildlife to protect new
settlements. Many state and federal regulations regarding the control of
certain species are based on hunting and trapping regulations. Protected
status, open seasons, legal capture methods, and disposition are all influenced
by state hunting and trapping laws, and the conservation guidelines of wildlife
biologists.  


To
truly understand the basis of most state and federal laws around wildlife you
should:


Recognize
the central principles of the North American Model of Wildlife Conservation.


WCO’s
play a role in wildlife conservation


A WCO’s
Role in Wildlife Conservation can include:


Do
not hesitate to contact state and federal wildlife professionals if the damage
situation is complex or if safety issues exist. If you have concerns about your
ability to handle a wildlife problem with appropriate care and diligence, do
not hesitate to work with other qualified WCOs.


Many
states may require a trapping license to capture wildlife. Professional
certification and licensing for animal removal, transport, and disposition may
also be required. The use of regulated toxicants almost always requires a
separate pesticide applicator license.


In
today’s urban environment, abundant wildlife create many human-wildlife
conflicts, and wildlife damage management professionals are in demand. State
hunting and trapping laws need to be supplemented with nuisance wildlife
control laws. The training and skills required to hunt and trap for recreation are
similar to some of the control methods for WDM, such as knowledge of wildlife
and its habitat. However, a different set of skills is also needed to manage
wildlife in urban and suburban settings such as building maintenance, managing
clients, and public relations.


A wildlife control operator (WCO)
is a professional trained to solve problems from wildlife damage and nuisance
wildlife situations, usually for profit, and licensed or permitted by the
government.


The
management of wildlife causing damage has ethical, economic, social, and
biological dimensions. Concerns about animal welfare, property damage, safety,
species diversity, and habitat destruction pose philosophical questions that
must be answered professionally, fairly, and legally. Public awareness, appropriate
legal oversight, and research by wildlife professionals are required to make
sure that human-wildlife conflicts are managed properly.


People
like wildlife and enjoy seeing animals. Problems occur when animals engage in
dangerous behavior or damage crops, domestic animals and property.  Animals are protected by the public trust,
and in many cases protected by additional laws, even when they can be lethally
removed. Wildlife control should be conducted to resolve an unacceptable amount
of damage or risk. It is important to recognize that any animal that may
currently be a pest to one or more persons, may at the same time be either
desirable, or of neutral value to someone else. There is no such thing as good
animals and bad ones. Whether an animal is beneficial, neutral, or undesirable
depends entirely upon one’s relationship with it.


Wildlife damage management (WDM) is the application of methods to resolve conflicts from animals that  cause damage, create safety issues, or are considered a nuisance.


Principle
1 – Wild animals are not Pests


Animals
are not considered pests until they
create a conflict with humans, their habitats, property, pets, health,
resources, or values.


Principle
2 –
Wildlife
can be unwanted


Animals
may have to be controlled when they threaten human infrastructure or conflict
with humans, their habitats, their resources, or their values in the following
ways.


Animals
become problems when they cause:


Wildlife
that have unwanted behaviors are deemed pests and can be controlled outside of
typical hunting and trapping seasons. This may require special permits for
wildlife control operators, who follow all local, state, and federal
regulations.


Principle 3 –
Prevent Wildlife Damage


The
objective of integrated wildlife damage management (IWDM) is to mitigate or
prevent the conflicts caused by the animals, and not just the capture, control,
or elimination of the wildlife.


Principle
4 – Objectives of
WDM


Reduce Damage to a Tolerable Level


Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
is an ecosystem-based strategy that focuses on long-term prevention of pests or
their damage through a combination of techniques such as biological control,
habitat manipulation, modification of cultural practices, and use of resistant
varieties. WCOs perform integrated
wildlife damage management
(IWDM).


Set reasonable goals. Propose a solution that
solves the problem. WCOs should avoid creating fear in clients, as this could
lead to an overreaction to wildlife on their property. People should accept
that there is a difference between deer living in the woods and deer eating
plants in the backyard.



Figure
1. Deer in the woods. Are they a threat? Photo by Jan Hygnstrom.


Be respectful and listen when clients explain
their feelings about an animal. Do not reinforce inappropriate stereotypes or
become drawn into a “problem” that does not need to be solved. On the other
hand, don’t use your clients’ fear of animals just to sell a job. Using the
clients fear to sell a job is unethical.


The
focus of IWDM is to reduce or eliminate damage, not just reduce the number of
animals. Remind your clients that the goal is to solve a specific problem, not
remove all the animals in the area. Target only the animals causing the
conflict, and not all the animals themselves.


IWDM problem-solving
framework


Use
Cost-effective Methods


If
the expense of resolving a problem is more than the cost of the problem itself,
it may not be practical to control the animal causing the damage. On the other
hand, a $250 stainless-steel chimney cap may seem expensive, but when a client
understands that the chimney cap will protect a home from animal entry for
decades, the cost may be reasonable. If the cap lasts 20 years, the annual cost
of the cap is just $12.50. Thus, a chimney cap provides a long-term,
inexpensive, and permanent solution, and provides clients with a tested method
for excluding wildlife from chimneys.


Use Safe Methods


People
dealing with wildlife damage may be under stress, which could lead them to
encourage the use of hazardous or illegal techniques. Just because a technique
or method works does not mean it should be used. For example, mixing strychnine
with cat food or putting out a bowl of radiator antifreeze may be effective in
killing opossums and raccoons. These techniques, however, are irresponsible and
illegal. Poisoning non-target animals can result in unnecessary suffering.
Recommend only the techniques that are most appropriate, effective, legal, and
safe for resolving the problem.


Use humane and ethical methods


Wild
animals are part of the public trust and need to be treated with respect.
People want to control damage from animals, not kill and hurt animals by
neglect and inhumane dispatch methods.


Follow all local, state, and federal laws


Wildlife
control is regulated in most states. If there are no permitting requirements
for WCOs, there are still hunting and trapping laws and many unprotected
species cannot be taken without a valid nuisance complaint. WCOs must make
every effort to follow government laws and regulations.


If a
client requests something beyond what you know to be legal, ethical, or safe,
you should suggest more reasonable alternatives, or consider declining the job.


Principle
5 –
Understand
Wildlife Biology


People
conducting wildlife damage management need to be knowledgeable of both the
animals and the associated damage that they may cause, and have the ability to:


State
resource agencies typically classify wildlife species into several categories
including big game, small game, upland game, migratory game birds, furbearers,
non-game and endangered/threatened or special concern species.


Problem
wildlife can be legally trapped in many areas. WCOs must be able to properly
identify their target species. Additionally, understanding the habits and
habitats of each species helps WCOs build better exclusionary controls, locate
good trapping locations and make successful sets.


Characteristics
to consider when identifying wildlife include:


Principle 6 – Knowledge
of
Wildlife Biology and Habitat is Required


People conducting IWDM need to be
knowledgeable about the biology of problem wildlife so that they understand
basic population dynamics, including carrying capacity and overabundance. A common
species does not become overabundant until it creates conflicts with people or
runs out of resources in its habitat.


Knowledge
of wildlife basic biology includes:


Population Dynamics


Factors that affect wildlife production and
survival include:


Problems with wildlife typically are greater
when suitable habitat (food, water, and shelter) are available. Habitat is the
most important factor affecting wildlife survival. It can change over time through
natural succession or management, and provides benefits to different species at
different stages of growth. Habitat loss can have permanent or lasting effects
on wildlife populations. Many wildlife species are comfortable in
urban/suburban environments (urban exploiters). Understanding wildlife ecology
promotes professional behavior.


As the habitat changes, so does the wildlife
population. When a client asks, “Why did the animals choose my house and
property?” the simple answer is because their home and landscape supplied
necessary resources (e.g., food, cover, water, and resting areas).


Biological basis of wildlife control


Limiting factors are characteristics that
can alter population growth. Examples include disease, predation, weather, and
a lack of habitat. (Fig. 2).


Overabundance


Overabundance occurs
when the population of a species of wildlife has exceeded the
biological or
cultural carrying capacity. For one reason or another, either the environment
cannot handle that number of animals, or animal numbers exceed human tolerance
levels. Good quality food and shelter contribute to overabundance.


The biological carrying capacity (BCC)
is the number of animals in a population that an environment can sustain
without long-term detrimental impacts from lack of food and other resources. For
example, when white-tailed deer become overabundant, a browse-line appears on
shrubs, trees, and ornamentals. Plants will have few live branches below 6
feet, undergrowth will be dramatically limited, and plant diversity will be
reduced due to over-browsing. Eventually, the deer population may decline due
to starvation, disease, and competition. Long-term environmental damage will
occur long before the deer population declines.


Cultural carrying capacity (CCC)
refers to the number of animals in a population that people are willing to
tolerate, based on the balance of environmental and social benefits and costs.
For example, some people are willing to tolerate a lot of deer damage, and they
are influenced by the benefits experienced from viewing and hunting deer. Some
people cannot tolerate a single snake in their yard, or a bat in their attic.



Figure 2. Many people enjoy seeing Canada
Geese but are not tolerant of feces and damage. Image by Paul D. Curtis.


Often, people’s tolerance for wildlife may be
exceeded long before animal numbers reach levels where environmental or
behavioral factors limit population growth.


Wildlife populations are not static. Wildlife populations may
fluctuate dramatically, both within and among years. Reasons for the
fluctuations vary, but the populations usually go up with food, shelter, and
good weather. Rodent and other prey populations frequently increase in numbers
responding to suitable environmental conditions, such as sufficient rainfall
and mild winters. As the number of prey animals increases, the number of
predators may also increase, although usually in the following year. Local
wildlife populations may change due to human activity such as residential
development, the addition or removal of bird feeders or gardens, and improper
trash storage.


Will Predators Solve the Problem?



Figure 3. Predator-Prey relationships. Image
by NPS.


A common
misconception is that wildlife is “out of balance” with nature because humans
have removed predators from the system. While it is true that populations of many
large predators have been reduced dramatically, it is unlikely that restoring
their numbers to pre-settlement levels would solve many human-wildlife
conflicts. Often, human tolerance of damage by wildlife is quite low.
Homeowners do not want to have fewer squirrels in their attic; they want NO
squirrels in their attic. Predators typically do not control populations of
prey (Fig. 3). If a predator substantially reduces prey populations, the
predator would threaten its own existence by eliminating its source of food.


Even
a cat that is skilled at catching mice often cannot control a rodent infestation
in a house. In addition, many predators are not selective in their choice of
prey, so non-target animals likely will be taken, for example cats may also
like to kill non-target birds.



Figure 4. Raptors may have some effect in
mitigating large bird populations. Image by Paul Curtis.


Principle 7 – Use Multiple Strategies to Resolve Human-Conflicts


WDM
includes many methods to reduce wildlife conflicts. They are generally
classified into the following categories:


Strategy  1  
Habitat Management:
Reduce the Biological Carrying Capacity


Remove food, water, or shelter to reduce the
biological carrying capacity and thus, the number of animals in an area. For
example, if someone is having conflicts with mice, thorough clean up and
removal of available food likely will reduce numbers (Fig. 5). You could
aggressively trap to reduce the population, but mice likely will reproduce
faster than your trapping efforts can control them, particularly when plenty of
food and shelter are available.



Figure 5.
Spilled bird seed will attract rodents, often leading to structural damage and
entry into homes. Photo in public domain.


Strategy
2   Exclude Animals


Prevent animals from accessing potential damage
sites and to provide long-term protection from damage. Exclusion techniques
include closing entry holes in buildings, installing bird nets over fruit
trees, and constructing deer-proof fences around orchards. Development of
exclusion techniques and devices is an active area of entrepreneurship, with
new and interesting products frequently appearing in the market. Exclusion
techniques typically require building skills like those of a carpenter. Tools and craftsmanship play an important role in
professional WDM exclusion services.
Poor exclusion methods can create
problems with clients and the public image of WCOs.


Strategy
3   Repel or Divert Animals


Another IWDM strategy is to repel or divert
animals from a location. Repellents are based on pain, fear, touch, or
conditioned aversion. Several repellents and frightening devices are available,
depending on the problem. Many of these products, however, have not been tested
adequately under research conditions and may fail to prevent damage. Most
repellents provide short-term control of wildlife conflicts.


Diversion is the process of luring animals
away from protected sites, usually with a food attractant. Although this may
sound good in theory, few practical applications exist. First, you need to find
a food source that is more attractive than what the animal is currently using.
Also, by increasing the availability of food, population levels may increase,
adding to the potential for damage on the property. The effectiveness of
diversion often is questionable. As for repellents, the effectiveness of
diversion is almost always is short-term.


Strategy
4   Reduce or Eliminate the Number of
Animals in an Area


The number of animals can be lowered by using
toxicants, trapping, or shooting. Such actions typically lead to a rapid decrease
in the population to a level in which they, or their associated damage, can be
tolerated or eliminated. Lethal control alone, however, often fails to reduce
long-term damage.As long as
suitable habitat and food resources are available, populations may rebound
quickly. Well-fed animals often have larger litters and greater success in
raising young to maturity. Population reduction sometimes fails because new animals
often move into an area that has been vacated (Fig. 6).


For example, you may have successfully
removed voles from one property at a given time. However, your client did not
understand that other voles would quickly move in from neighboring properties
where you did not have permission to work, and soon occupy the habitat
previously used by the voles you removed. Some pest problems need to be managed
by multiple property owners in order to provide a lasting solution to the
problem.


Coon in trap


Figure 6. A problem raccoon can be removed by
trapping, but unless food is removed and openings are sealed, another animal
may quickly move in and become a problem. Image by Paul D. Curtis.


Disposition


Once
you have captured an animal, you must do something with it. The law forbids
WCOs from keeping animals in traps for more than a short time. In many cases,
the law does not allow moving the animal to another location.


Translocationmeans moving a nuisance animal from one place to another
outside of its home range.


Relocationrefers
to moving and releasing an animal within its home range.
This is sometimes referred to as onsite
release, and is usually is a short distance away from where it was captured. 


Moving
animals by translocation is not recommended. Moving animals may spread disease
or cause problems in new places.  If
an animal must be moved, it should be moved as short a distance as possible.
For the best chance of survival, the animal should be released within its home
range.


Translocated
animals rarely stay in the area of release and often have low survival rates
because they do not find suitable habitat elsewhere. As a result, these
translocated animals often experience a slow and stressful death, as opposed to
a quick and humane death administered by a trained WCO. Many states prohibit
translocating or relocating almost all species of wildlife, except when animals
are removed from inside dwellings or structures and released in the immediate
vicinity outside these buildings.


Humane Dispatch and Carcass Disposal


Humane dispatch refers to humanely
terminating an animal’s life, if possible, using veterinary approved methods
for euthanizing animals. The body must be disposed of safely, legally, and
ethically.


Principle
8 – Conflict is Inevitable


Some wildlife species
thrive and adapt to urban and suburban environments. Human activities provide
food, water, and shelter. People invite wildlife into their space. Conflict is
inevitable
. People performing IWDM provide a valuable service for
stakeholders and the community. WCOs play an important role in wildlife conservation
by controlling problem wildlife and practicing integrated wildlife damage
management.


Whose Home?


Many
people believe that wildlife cause damage to property because “humans have
taken away their homes” or that urbanization has
destroyed their natural habitats
. When resources are available, wildlife is
abundant and animals are very comfortable in urban environments. Urban sprawl
has reduced habitat for some animals such as forest birds and large predators,
but it has created and supplied habitat and food for other more adaptable
species such as gulls, raccoons, squirrels, rodents, and deer. Wildlife removal
and exclusion work is an essential occupation. WCOs performing wildlife damage
management provide important and necessary services.


Principle
9 – Respect Public Attitudes


Peoples’ attitudes about wildlife vary
greatly. Many people enjoy seeing wildlife, and species are protected by the
public trust. Wildlife are protected by animal cruelty laws. Clients’ wishes
should be considered when they are safe, legal, and practical.  All IWDM should be performed humanely,
ethically, and as transparently, but discreetly, as possible. Resolve conflicts
rather than just remove offending animals.


Principle
10 –
Education and
Regulation Promote Competency and Professional Behavior


Licensing and training standards improve the
working environment of wildlife control operators by applying consistent
standards of professional behavior and knowledge, both legal and practical, of
wildlife control methods, as well as standards for humanely dispatching and
disposing of wildlife. Training and licensing are an important part of wildlife
damage management.


Continuing education at conferences and
workshops promotes collegial behavior and provides the opportunity to learn new
and effective strategies for controlling wildlife from practicing wildlife
professionals.


Study Questions for
Principles of Wildlife Damage Management


Questions for Reflection


Objective
Questions


  • is the number of animals that a human or human community will
    tolerate in a given area

  • s the maximum number of individuals of a given population that
    an environment can sustain.


Answers


1. c 


2. a cultural b.
biological 


3. d 


4. False 


5. False